مدل سازی زمین شناسی | Petrel 2019.5+Plugin
The Petrel 2019.5 E&P software platform offers geoscientists and engineers a single platform for collaborative workflows with best-in-class technology and leading innovation. From seismic processing to production, the Petrel platform enables seamless integration across all the subsurface domains, enabling you to deliver your best field development plan.
New features and enhancements - Petrel 2019.5
The following content contains descriptions of new features and behavioral changes in this release, organized by domain.
Well section window
Empty well section templates folder: Fixed an issue where the Petrel system templates folder under the Well section templates folder was empty when creating a new project in Petrel 2019.3 or Petrel 2019.4.
There are many improvements to the existing GPM functionalities and usability. These changes are expressed as new controls in the existing process and as a complete reorganization of the tabs and subtabs. In addition, a new GPM 2D mode is now available, which enables you to easily and quickly build GPM models as 2D cross-sections. Such 2D models are used to rapidly test and validate different geologic scenarios thereby providing additional support to workflows such as well correlation, seismic interpretation and prediction of the rock distribution, reservoir connectivity and potential stratigraphic traps.
- Newuserinterface:Allthedialogboxeshavebeenupdatedtomaketheuserexperiencesmootherandmoreintuitive. The Run sedimentary simulation dialog box has been reorganized into three main tabs: General, Geological processes, andHistory.IntheGeologicalprocessestab,alltheintermediatefolders(tectonic,pointsource,arealsource)have beenremovedandtheprocesseventsarenowmanaged,usingtables,undereachspecific
- Contextmenu:YoucannowaccessprocessingandconversionoptionsforGPMsoftwaremodelresultsfromthe context menu. Some of the previous context menu options have been replaced and new options have been
- Datamanagement:GPMresultswerepreviouslystoredinthePetrelproject.datfolderandalsocreatedasan.hdf5 Simulation results are now only created as .hdf5 files and are no longer stored in the Petrel project .dat folder. Therefore,thesimulationresultobjectsvisibleintheInputpanearenowonlylinkstothecorresponding.hdf5files, similar to the way in which seismic data is managed in Petrel.
- Algorithmchanges:ChangesweremadetotheWaveandSteadyflowalgorithmstoimprovetheperformanceofboth the simulation and results.
GPM 2D is a complete forward stratigraphic modeling solution based on the same technology as GPM 3D. It enables the simulation of sedimentary deposition through time and is based on processes such as growth, erosion, transport, and deposition of clastic and carbonate sediments in a user-defined 2D cross-section.
It can be used to predict stratigraphic architecture and lithology variations and estimate porosity and permeability in a 2D section.
Using GPM 2D, it is very fast and easy to build a model and to quickly run multiple iterations. Therefore, you can use this tool to have a quick look at and get an overview of possible sedimentology and stratigraphy scenarios.
Because GPM 2D runs in a 2D section and is aimed at achieving very fast simulations, some more elaborate GPM geological processes are not available, such as steady flow, unsteady flow, and wave action. These geological processes are available in GPM 3D for more complex simulations.
GPM 2D simulation results include:
- An understanding of the effect of the main controls of the sedimentary processes in your sedimentary system.
- The distribution of sediment types and rock properties along the 2D section.
- An understanding of the possible sedimentary architectures and their implications for well correlation, seismic interpretation, reservoir connectivity, and the potential for stratigraphictraps.
The following content summarizes known issues and limitations organized by domain.
- There may be an error when converting a mesh probe made from multi-z data into a seismic cube. This is best checked by playing converted timeslices through the original multi-z data to check that the conversion is
- There will be an error when extracting geobodies from a volume mesh probe made from seismic horizons surfaces that have holes in them.
- Horizonprobes:Horizonprobesuseanon-demandview.Thisisnotcachedwhentheprojectissaved.Therefore,on reopening a project that contains a horizon probe, the surface or horizon must be resampled the first time the probe is displayed. For large surfaces, this can take a considerable amount of time. You may wish to close the window that shows the probe before you save the project, or press Ctrl when opening the project (this opens the project with no windows open).
- Meshes: You cannotcreateaneditablemeshfrom3Dinterpretationdataiftherearegapsbetweeninterpretedpoints, for example if you have interpreted on a cube with an increment greater than the survey increment. You can resolve this by either interpolating the data or converting to a surface.
Seismic Well Tie
Depth seismic calibration study:
- If a well is transferred from Studio, the active DDR in the project is reset to the DDR that was active for this well when it was transferred to the Studio repository. In this case, after the transfer, you must activate the required DDRlog.
- A depth seismic calibration study with only bulk shift applied created prior Petrel 2019.2 has incorrect depth correction values when the project is upgraded.
Workaround: Open the Seismic well tie Tool Palette, select bulk shift, remove it and then apply the same bulk shift but with the opposite sign.
- A depth seismic calibration study created in Petrel 2019.4 with bulk shift or bulk shift plus manual corrections is not supported by earlier Petrel 2019 versions.
- Deleted depth correction attributes re-generate each time a new depth seismic calibration study is created.
Contour lines disassociated from a surface: In some cases, when a surface is rotated, the contour lines can be disassociated from the surface after running a workflow. This issue is currently under investigation.
A potential workaround to resolve this issue is to save the project with a different name.
Well Section Window
- Styletabfordepogridproperties:Styletabeditsfordepogridpropertiesarenotpreservediftheprojectisopenedin 2018.1. Default settings apply in Petrel 2018.1 and the Style tab is notavailable.
- CustomtemplatesintheWellSectionWindow:SurfacescannotbedisplayedintheWellSectionWindowwhenusing custom templates inside the Well SectionWindow.
Reservoir and Production Engineering
- UsereditswithFMStrategy:IfyouhavecreatedUserEditsforFieldmanagementstrategypriortoPetrel2018.1and they contain nodes related to region mapping, they must be updated to match the new node names.
|Old (pre-2018.1)||New (2018.1 and later)|
- EORSurfactantworkflows:InINTERSECT2019.1andlater,thesurfactantworkflowiscompatiblewithblacksimulation with oil, water, and gas
Dual porosity, compositional, API tracking simulation, and J-function are not supported with surfactant. Refer to INTERSECT Technical Description for a detailed compatibility list.
- Depogrid INTERSECT cases do not support PINCH: INTERSECT does not currently support the generation of connections across pinched-out layers (PINCH keyword in ECLIPSE) for unstructured grids such as depogrids. Pre- release testing suggests that the material impact on the simulation is limited when realistic property distributions are used.
In a structured grid, pinched-out layers either represent layers of zero-thickness cells or represent cells that have been made inactive because their overall cell thickness or pore volume is less than the specified threshold value. The presence of a layer of inactive cells would normally prevent flow from crossing between the active cells immediately above and below. So, you can turn on the option within the simulator to automatically generate non-neighbor connections that allow fluid to flow between these active cells.
However, in a depogrid you cannot have cells of zero thickness. In addition, we tested the impact on the simulated reservoir flows across cells made inactive with pore volume cut-off values on a selection of synthetic and client models that contained the thin layers and flat erosions. While you can create flow barriers in synthetic examples with constant reservoir properties, when representative property distributions were used, unrealistically large pore volume cut-off values were required to see a material flow barrier.
- Caseconversion–ConverttoINTERSECTFieldManagementcases:TheabilitytoconvertasimulationcasetoaField ManagementcaseisanadditionaloptionthathasbeenaddedtotheCaseConversiondialogbox.Itenablesyouto
convert cases that use INTERSECT Development Strategies to cases that use INTERSECT Field Management strategies. This is a pre-commercial feature, and has some limitations in this release. It can convert many cases, but you may encounter some problems.
Most types of cases can be inserted in the Input case field. Select the type of case that you want to convert the input case to. Where check boxes are disabled, there is no supported conversion to that case type. The selected case types determine the new cases that result. Petrel may generate intermediate cases during conversion, but unless these case types were explicitly requested they are deleted before conversion finishes.
Here are some hints to help you overcome the issues you may encounter:
Many cases convert without problems – if conversion errors occur, error messages appear and the case types that you selected may not be created. You can still achieve the conversion you want by isolating the problems, making changes to cases, and re-running the conversions.
To do this, run the conversions in stages. For example, if you are starting with an ‘imported’ case (an ECLIPSE deck managed by a Petrel case), and you want to convert this to an INTERSECT Field Management case, Petrel does the following conversion stages in sequence, for a single use of the Convert Case dialog box:
- Conversion of the ‘imported’ case to a ‘modeled’ ECLIPSE case (this was called Convert to Petrel case in Petrel 2017).
- Conversion of the ‘modeled’ ECLIPSE case to an INTERSECT Development Strategy case.
- Conversion of the INTERSECT Development Strategy case to an INTERSECT Field Management case.
Instead, do each of these three conversions separately, using the Case Convertor dialog box each time. After each conversion, try to export and run the case that was just created.
If you see errors at any stage, or simulation results that do not match, then try to resolve these issues first (by either modifying the input or output case).
Where there are problems with conversion (2), it can be helpful to run the INTERSECT Migrator directly on the exported ECLIPSE case (outside Petrel) to check if the same problems are seen.
Conversion (1) can create ECLIPSE ‘user keywords’ in the converted case, these are a common cause of conversion problems.
Conversion (2) can create INTERSECT user edits in the converted case, these should be the INTERSECT ‘equivalent’ of the user keywords in (1).
Conversion (3) can also create INTERSECT user edits in the converted case. These should mostly be the same as the user edits in (2) but with some different IXF node names, caused by different naming formats between DS (ECLIPSE format) and FM (full Petrel entity names). It may be possible to correct some types of error by editing the generated user keywords or user edits.
Some known limitations in this release:
- Restart cases
- Cases containing Initial Condition Sets
- Cases with grids that cannot be reasonably accurately represented in Petrel EGRID format.
- Initialization cases (in other words, no Development Strategy).
- Cases with user keywords affecting gridgeometry.
Structural Framework Modeling
- Faultmodeling–Runningconvertedfaultframeworks:Previous(pre-2018)structuralframeworksmustbeconverted to new domain objects and rerun. Fault modeling parameters are converted as they are, but for some cases are used differently, for example the fault smoothingparameter.
- Faultmodeling–2018/2019/2020versuspreviousversions:Frameworkfaultsmodeledwithpreviousversionsmay differ from faults modeled with the new fault framework modeling algorithm, even though the same parameters have been used. Any derived output from fault modeling is also expected to change. To minimize such differences,the
pre-2018.1 framework fault can be converted into points and assigned as input to the new fault model.
- Faultmodeling–Modelingwhileinterpreting:Faultmodelingwhileinterpretingisnotyetenabledonthenew framework faults.
- Faultmodeling–Faultextrapolationdistance:Dependingonthefaultshapeanddipvariations,theextrapolation distance might not be isotropic.
- Fault modeling – Fault truncation editing: Fault patches can only be truncated when the corresponding intersection line entirely disconnects the fault patch. A truncation rule specified in the Framework fault modeling process which cannot be applied will not be automatically set to none. In other words, the fault relationship table will be inconsistent with the Framework faults.
- Modelconstruction–Filteringofstratigraphicmodelinputdata:Thefilteringbe performed for selected faults at specific distances in the horizon modeling process prior to Petrel 2018.1. This is nowhandledbyfilteringattributegenerationintheHorizonclean-upprocessandattributeconsumptionintheModel construction process. Bulk fault filtering (one value for all faults but for selected input) is still possible in the Model construction process.
- Modelconstruction–Incorrectdip-trendextrapolationalongfaultsandatmodelboundary:Withoutenoughdatato constrain horizons close to faults and the model boundary, those horizons can present an incorrect shape, for example in narrow fault blocks where the input data has been The editing of filtering parameters (edit attribute,reducebulkandmanualadditionofnewunfiltereddatacanreducetheseeffects.
- Modelconstruction–ModelfaultsversusFrameworkfaults:ModelfaultsresultingfromtheModelconstructionstep are re-meshed versions of the framework faults. Depending on the change in mesh resolution, model faults may have a different shape and no longer explicitly match the fault tops used in fault modeling.
- Modelconstruction–Spikesorbubblesinnon-refinedhorizons: Non-refinedhorizonsextracted fromthestratigraphic can in some cases present spikes or bubbles. These artifacts can often be related to inconsistent stratigraphic input data (very noisy interpretation, omitted faults, competing data, and other anomalies). Such inconsistencies are not necessarily present in the input data corresponding to the horizon where those artefacts are observed. These inconsistencies may be derived from any other input data for the affected conformable sequence.
- Model refinement – Degradation of refined versus non-refined horizons: Where the non-refined horizons (from the Modelconstructionprocess)arefarawayfromthecorrespondinginputdata,issuescanoccurduringtherefinement refined horizons are snapping to the input data, but intermediate horizons do not have any input data to snap to (for example, well-based horizons), refined horizons may cross even whentheEnforceconsistentzonethickness
- Modelrefinement–Keeponlyblocks:TheKeeponlyblockswithinputdatais not compatible with the Depospace calculation process and with the Structural gridding process when using the stratigraphic layering type.
- Depospacecalculation–Overlappingzonesorgapsindepospace:Unbalancedstructuralmodelsduetoinconsistent fault/horizon cut-off lines can result in overlapping areas or gaps in depospace view. Overlaps can be seen in the mesh view of the zones.
- Depospacecalculation–Optimization:Depospaceperformanceoptimizationperconformablesequence(pre-2018.1) is currently not compatible with the underlying stratigraphic function structure and depogrid, and has therefore been disabled.
- Depospacecalculation–Geodesicdistances:Thecurrentdepospacecalculationusesaverticalmappingstepto flattentheconformablehorizons,andconsequentlygeodeticdistancesmaynotbepreservedincertaincases.
- Depospacecalculation–Isolatedfaultblocks:ZonesidentifiedasisolatedfaultblocksarenothandledinDepospace. To remove isolated fault blocks, at least one data point must be added into eachblock.
- Depogridsinmulti-sequencemodels:Fordepogridsbuiltfromstructuralmodelsincludingnon-conformablehorizons (erosion, base, or discontinuity), small gaps or interpenetrations may be observed locally between grid cells across the unconformity. These may create small-scale localized artifacts. The impact on downstream property modeling, volume computation, and reservoir simulation has been assessed aslow.
- Depogridswithalateralresolutiondifferentfromtheparentstructuralmodel:Itisrecommendedtobuildadepogridat a similar lateral resolution to the parent structural model. Issues may be observed when those resolutions significantly
- Depogridlayeringissuesincertaincasesofhighaspectratiocells:Thedistributionofthelayerswithinazonemay not strictly be proportional in certain cases of grid cells with a high aspect ratio. The extreme case is self-intersecting cells that may locally be observed around faults or well tops.
Depogrid support workflows: The following property modeling processes/methods/options are not available for depogrids:
- Zone correction option in Well logupscaling.
- Multi-point simulation with patterns object method for discrete properties.
- Create variograms from properties inSettings.
- More tab for continuousproperties.
- Store and populate the contact option in the Contacts process.
- VISAGE INTERSECTcoupling
- The pore volume updating of the fracture model can be unstable for large pore volume changes causing convergence issues in the INTERSECT simulation. In this case, you are advised to turn off the pore volume updating of the fracture model.
- This release does not support the remote transfer of coupled VISAGE/INTERSECT cases.
- Quick MEM: Does not supportLGRs.
- Mud weightpredictor: Does not support LGRs.
- Creep:Includingcreepinthegeomechanicalsimulationcansignificantlyincreasethesimulationruntime,especially whenchoosingPowerlawcreepVisco-plasticshearstressremovalforinitializationwithalowcreeptolerance and long time period.
- GeneralfolderinMIPSfolder:Ifa2019.2projectthatcontainsgeneralfoldersinsidetheFaciesorPetrophysicalMIPS folders is opened in Petrel 2019.1, the folders are not valid. Make sure that all MIP objects are stored outside of general folders if you intend to save the project in 2019.1. If not, the MIP objects will be corrupted when the project is saved in 2019.1.
- DataanalysissettingsinMIPobjects:Currently only single variogram structures and globalfacies fractions are captured in MIP from data analysis. Proportion, probability, and transformation curves are not stored in
- MIPobjectunitdependencywithRPT:ItisnotpossibletotransferMIPobjectsbetweenprojectsiftheXYandZunits if the Working and Background projects are not thesame.
- Uncertaintyandoptimization-Trendmodeling:2DdiscreteTrendmodelingprocessisnotrestoredintheUncertainty and optimization process when its output is used as input in a process defined in a case. Only discrete 3D trend modeling is listed in the Uncertainty and optimization 2D trend models can be added to the workflow through Edit workflow in Unceratinty and optimizationprocess.
Petroleum Systems Modeling
- 2Dextractionfrom3Dmodel:Whenyoudisplayaproperty,andshowthedefaultormorecellboundaries(horizons and vertical lines), and then turn on a different property, the cell boundary lines are no longervisible.
Workaround: Rotate the model to make them reappear.
- Import3DinputmodelfromPetroModtoPetrel:Takecarewhenimportingmodelsthatcontainlayerswhichwere completely deposited and eroded because the number of sublayers (at present day) does not match the number created horizons.
Workaround: The top horizon of a layer, which was completely deposited and eroded, must be assigned manually in the Create 3D model process after importing the model. Note that the naming convention of that horizon differs between Petrel and PetroMod.
- Extractandexport2Dinterpretationfromseismiclines:Extractandexport2Dinterpretationfromseismiclinesdoes not support cropped lines.Workarounds:
- Use the uncropped line for the extraction and export.
- Convert the cropped line to 2D seismic (right-click on the line, then select Convert to 2D seismic in the shortcut menu) and right-click the resulting 2D seismic line to access Extract and export to PetroMod.
- Create3DmodelMap-basedmixing:Map-basedmixingdoesnotworkformodelsthatcontainerosioneventswhen facies are assigned from the table. If lithology mixing ratios are defined from grid properties and erosion is to be modeled at the same time, the simulator reports that some elements have no lithological information. This is because the mixing ratio property is not definedfor the missing elements (due to erosion).
- Export the model to PetroMod.
- Convert cube data to maps.
- Fill in any undefinedvalues using the map editing tools in PetroBuilder 3D.
- Simulate the model.
Petroleum Systems Quick Look
Petroleum Systems Quick Look lithologies not available to petroleum systems modeling outside of PSQL: Petroleum Systems Quick Look (PSQL) lithologies are generated by default in a main folder. Note that lithologies located in main lithology folders are not merged with PetroMod. Therefore, the simulator does not have access to them, and they cannot be assigned in a Facies definition table in PetroMod or in Petrel.
Workaround: If you want to use PSQL lithologies for petroleum systems modeling outside of PSQL, you must copy them to a sub- folder.
Play Chance Mapping
Play Chance Mapping Coordinate reference system (CRS) conversion possible with wrong results: If you work with Play Chance Mapping (PCM) in the Reference project tool, after a coordinate reference system (CRS) conversion the resulting surface may be distorted or have a rotation angle. The reason is that the master grid may no longer be orthogonal, which is mandatory for PCM to work properly.
Workaround: Specify the master grid after the CRS conversion and run PCM again.
If the GPM simulation name given during the Run sedimentary simulation process includes a special character (space, underscore, hyphen, and so on), the resulting GPM input object retains the complete GPM simulation name but the name of the resulting GPM result object does not include any special characters (for example, GPM_3D_Model will become GPM3DModel).
Workaround: Do not use special characters in GPM simulation models.
- Curveshiftinginverticalandhorizontaltracks:Curveshiftsinverticalandhorizontaltracksdisappearwhenyouclose a project. You must re-apply the shift when you re-open theproject.
- Artifactscreatedwheneditingawelltop:Sometimes,wheneditingawelltop(draggingitsideways)inthehorizontal trackoftheCurtainSectionWindow,someartifactsaredisplayed.Theseartifactsareonlyvisual.
- Projectdatatabledeletefunctionality:Whendeletingamicroseismicfolderandtheassociateddataandgeopolygons in the Project data table, if the Search dialog box is open, or if it was opened and then closed, you may receive an errormessage.Asaworkaround,avoidopeningtheSearchdialogboxwhendeletingthisdatatype,ordeleteobjects from the Input
- StudiodatabaseupgradeofSRDinformation:Duringupgrade,time-indexeddataaretaggedwiththeoriginalseismic reference datum (SRD) of the object. This is important for subsequent use in multi-SRD An issue exists where seismic logs (time-indexed synthetics, logs extracted from time-indexed seismic cubes) are not given an original SRD tag. This means that, on transfer to a Petrel project, they will assume the SRD of the Petrel project. This may not be correct and can lead to erroneous interpretation.
Workaround: If you know the correct SRD of the object, set this manually in the Petrel SRD manager and then for the data shifted in conjunction with other log data.
- QualityReportingScreenCaptureworkstepdoesnotsupportgeoreferencedimages:WhenusingtheScreenCapture workstepwithinaworkflow,iftheoptiontooutputtheimageasageoreferencedimageisselected,animagewillbe createdintheInput
Workaround: Spatial information can be entered manually in the Settings dialog box of the georeferenced image.
- AnycommentsaddedtoGurupagesinpreviousversionsarenotretained:IfyouaddedcommentstoanyGurupages in previous versions of Petrel, these are not retained in 2019.
- QualityReportingAddtoreferencelistdoesnotsupporthorizonsfroma3Dgrid:WhenusingtheAddtoreferencelist workstep in a workflow, if 3D grid horizons are added to that reference list then any operation that is run on that reference list will not recognize them (a message appears saying the reference list is empty).
Workaround: Use the For all icons in workstep to loop through all horizons within a 3D grid or provide the horizons manually to the Set reference list workstep.
- Customcompanylogosarenotretainedifapageisrepackaged:IfanewpageiscreatedintheGuruEditorand packaged with a new company logo, if the page is packaged a second time all the information is retained except the company logo (it will revert to the Schlumberger logo).
Workaround: Add the company logo during each packaging process.
- BlankguidedworkflowwindowopensiftwoPetrelinstancesareopen:IftherearetwoinstancesofPetrelaccessing Guru or running a guided workflowwill result in a blank Guru window opening.
Workaround: Close one instance of Petrel and Guru will function correctly.
- Toolsrepeatedinsearch:Multipletoolsexistforsomefunctions,suchascreatingwindowsandopeningdialogboxes, and some tool names therefore appear more than once. This is an area of active development.
- Toolsmissingfromsearch:Sometools,suchasdrop-downmenus,maynotappearinthesearchresultsintheProfile editor dialog box.
No CGM output: If you have a map window active and you print in CGM format, no CGM file is generated. Workaround: Click Advanced Settings , then select Save debug output to disk.
Geopolygons do not display in the correct position in the map viewport when using large-sized plot windows: When using a plot window with a large size and two or more map viewports are displayed at the bottom and top right, if you visualize a geopolygon with the corresponding polygon counterpart for reference, the geopolygon will shift position when you reduce the zoom display.
Live collaboration: The Live collaboration feature has the following limitations:
- The list of supported data when creating a collaboration session and searching for objects can be incomplete. Supported objects that are missing from the list can be directly added to the session using the bluearrow.
- It is not possible to delete an active collaboration session. You can only delete your own session if nobody else has joined.
- Itispossibletospecifycollaborationadministrativerightstousersinthesothattheycan delete any non-active session. Note: User names are case-sensitive.
- It is not possible to join a session that contains a seismic horizon with only read-only access to the folder where the Petrel project is stored.
- When performing fault interpretation through a live collaboration session, where user 'A' is interpreting a fault and user 'B' is interacting with the same fault and has it set as active, if user 'B' moves the active fault from its original folder, this causes the Petrel session to crash for user'A'.
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