The ECLIPSE 2023.1 industry-reference simulator offers the industry’s most complete and robust set of numerical solutions for fast and accurate prediction of dynamic behavior for all types of reservoirs and development schemes. The ECLIPSE simulator has been the benchmark for commercial reservoir simulation for more than 25 years thanks to its extensive capabilities, robustness, speed, parallel scalability, and unmatched platform coverage. With over 30 years of continuous development and innovation, the ECLIPSE simulator is the most feature-rich and comprehensive reservoir simulator on the market—covering the entire spectrum of reservoir models, including black oil, compositional, thermal finite-volume, and streamline simulation. By choosing from a wide range of add-on options—such as local grid refinements, coalbed methane, gas field operations, advanced wells, reservoir coupling, and surface networks—simulator capabilities can be tailored to meet your needs, enhancing your reservoir modeling capabilities. This release of the ECLIPSE suite 2023.1 includes developments enhancing the performance, usability and functionality capabilities of the simulators.
Improved reporting for multisegment wells
Chord segment links for looped flow paths, as specified in the WSEGLINK keyword, are now output to the RFT file.
In ECLIPSE 100, an issue which meant that some summary output could be missing when segment numbering was not continuous has been fixed.
In ECLIPSE 300, error checking has been improved in cases where WSEGDIMS dimensions were not large enough for the model, and where there was a mismatch between the usage of COMPDATL and COMPSEGL.
Additional UDA facilities
The following keywords have had additional items made available for definition as user-defined arguments:
GCONPROD 14. Reservoir fluid volume production rate target or upper limit.
GSATPROD 2. Oil production rate
GSATPROD 3. Water production rate
GSATPROD 4. Gas production rate
GSATPROD 5. Reservoir fluid volume production rate
GSATPROD 7. Mean calorific value of gas produced
The ECLIPSE 100 alternative behavior for well and group quantities which can be specified by UDA in more than one keyword is now also available in ECLIPSE 300. Additional functionality has been added in both ECLIPSE 100 and ECLIPSE 300 for cases where a second keyword modifies a quantity rather than setting it directly.
UDA reporting has been improved to avoid a situation where, if wildcards were used in a keyword, there was no confirmation that a particular UDA had (correctly) been deactivated.
ECLIPSE 100 and ECLIPSE 300
• Restart runs using SKIPREST will now not terminate if an END keyword is encountered inside an ACTION family keyword while skipping.
• The LGR name in the COMPDATL keyword can now be defaulted with the normal 1* format (for non amalgamated LGRs).
• Specifying the NONNC keyword for a dual porosity model now terminates cleanly with an error.
• Viscosity and density calculations have been improved for thermal models which use the CVTYPE, CGDTYPE, or CGVTYPE keywords to avoid the use of extreme critical temperatures. Reporting has also been improved to avoid empty tables in the PRT file for options where they are not relevant.
• For CO2STORE models, the algorithm for THP-controlled well pressure calculations now avoids initial estimated pressures outside the valid Spycher-Pruess range, and the PRT output of Ezrokhi coefficients now supports very small values.
• A problem which could cause parallel runs to fail with an internal error about the MPI buffer being too small if a grid file was not requested has been fixed.
• The WELLWAG keyword now works correctly for the MONTHS cycle type with a cycle length of >23 months.
• Tracer cumulative connection summary vector output has been corrected for parallel runs.
• A problem which could cause the 2022 versions of $extract to fail has been fixed.
• The $convert macro now supports filenames with a root length of up to 72 characters in the conversion between unified and multiple output facility.
Message Service Output
Message Service output can cause issues on the Lustre file system and possibly other filesystems which do not support file locking. When using such a file system, we recommend that you use the MESSSRVC keyword to prevent the generation of a .dbprtx file.
Generic simulation grid
When specifying MULTNUM in a GSG file for use with MULTREGT, the pre-sweep is unable to identify that MULTNUM is present. To avoid MULTREGT being disallowed as a result, when GSG input is used, the simulator assumes that MULTNUM data will be found in the GSG file if GRIDOPTS(2) has been used to dimension it. All this is invisible if your dataset is legal. However, there is a minor side effect if you create an invalid dataset dimensioning MULTNUM using GRIDOPTS(2), use it in MULTREGT, but do not include it in the GSG file. In this case, the error messages state that the values of MULTNUM are out of range, rather than the keyword is missing.
For both ECLIPSE 100 Blackoil and ECLIPSE 300 Compositional, multisegment wells, that include a large number of segments and looped flow paths, can experience severe convergence problems. When this occurs, convergence can sometimes be improved by excluding acceleration in the well pressure drop calculation method (WELSEGS item 6) and/or reducing the number of segments and loops.
At present, any changes to non-neighbor connection transmissibilities in the SCHEDULE section are not taken into account in a restart run, and the original NNC transmissibilities are reloaded. Results in a restart run performed after use of keywords such as MULTX or MULTSIG, or after OPERATER has been used to change the permeability or a multiplier, may therefore be inconsistent with the base run, in any case which has NNCs. These may be due to complex geometry, but can also be due to the presence of LGRs, dual porosity, or pinchouts, for example. If a restart is required, it should be performed before SCHEDULE section changes are made to transmissibility.
In ECLIPSE 100, an alternative workflow using OPTIONS item 319 is available to avoid this issue.
There are known limitations with the combination of PINCHXY and the Parallel option. If the simulation model contains complex geometry, for instance, Y-shaped faults, use Petrel to define the geometry and NNCs correctly. This information can be imported into ECLIPSE using a Generic Simulation Grid (.GSG).
Combining the Surfactant Model with the Local Grid Refinements option may lead to numerical differences between the original and the refined cases, particularly for very fine refinements.
1. When using UDQs and group quantities for the normal network model, the entire FIELD is not included as a group quantity, while FIELD is present for the extended network model.
2. When transmissibility multipliers from ROCKTABH are determined, the explicit value of the pressure is used rather than the implicit value. Normally this has very little effect. However, if there is a change in the SCHEDULE section that causes a large pressure change where the multipliers also change rapidly with pressure, then for the next timestep, the multiplier selected may not reflect the new pressure accurately. To avoid this, put in a single very small timestep immediately following any such changes.
3. SOLVFRAC values are not transcribed from the global grid into LGRs. It is also not possible to specify SOLVFRAC values manually using REFINE in the SOLUTION section. This results in a zero SOLVFRAC value being used in LGR cells.
4. There is a known discrepancy between the effective water viscosity that is reported and that which is used in the calculation of the shear water viscosity in the PLYSHEAR and PLYSHLOG options. In the shear viscosity calculation, the effective water viscosity belonging to the upwind cell is used, and this may differ from that belonging to the cell in question. The resulting shear viscosity that is output may, as a consequence, be inconsistent with the cell-based effective water viscosity output.
5. There may be oscillations in bottom hole pressure profiles for wells injecting surfactant in the Surfactant Model. This leads to instabilities in well potential calculations which can also affect the logarithm of the capillary number used to model the effects of surfactant injection.
6. There is a convergence issue which may occur when the Surfactant Model is combined with the Multi- component Brine option.
7. There are known summary reporting issues associated with the water flows at global-LGR boundaries where the flows are computed as NNC flows. The water flows at such boundaries are reported as zero. This therefore means that, in polymer flood models, the shear multipliers at such boundaries are treated as unity and so the reported shear water viscosities are equal to the corresponding effective water viscosities. The setting of shear multipliers at these boundaries to unity also skews the calculation of the overall shear multiplier for the global host cells and hence skews the corresponding pre-shear water flows consequently calculated based on the post-shear water flows.
Dual tubing injector pressure control
For secondary injection wells, a limit may be imposed, both upon the maximum injection pressure in the secondary well segment, and a maximum pressure in an additional nominated segment. When the well is opened using the SCONINJE or STEST keywords, these maximum pressure limits are not honored prior to opening, and injection typically continues for the duration of a timestep before the secondary well is closed due to these limits. This situation may be avoided by delaying the opening of the well until these limits no longer apply.
The steam trap control can be unstable, particularly in SAGD simulations where there are many completions. As a result, the production rate can oscillate and timesteps may be quite small. Small differences in simulation, for example between different versions, can shift these oscillations which gives the impression that the answers have changed. In fact, the average production rate stays the same, but the “noise” changes.
GASWAT and CO2STORE isothermal reporting
If oil phase summary output is requested for these two phase (water and gas only) model types, non zero values may be reported. This is to support legacy workflows and the values reported as oil phase are the water phase values.
If the data deck contains either reservoir coupling or parallel (or both), the features are not needed in the LICENSES keyword. Adding them there may cause problems with ECLRUN.
1. The aquifer facility in FrontSim can produce different initial transient rates compared to an ECLIPSE run on the same model. FrontSim may calculate a spike rate on a non-converged, initial, large timestep. Reducing the initial timesteps and tuning can help to reduce this effect. Typically the steady state aquifer rate should match ECLIPSE.
2. The aquifer option does not support a connection to active cell faces within the grid.
3. The aquifer option does not allow a single cell face to be connected to multiple aquifers.
In some Dual Porosity models, the translation of volumes from reservoir to surface conditions does not exactly honor the input PVT.
The output of scaled capillary pressure to the debug file is incorrect.
Generic simulation grid (GSG)
FrontSim and ECLIPSE have different ways of handling GSG Transmissibility and Pore Volume (T&PV) cells that have zero PORO. ECLIPSE can use PORV in the (T&PV) workflow to activate such cells, while FrontSim does not activate such cells when non-zero PORV values are inputted. As a result, there may be a small difference in the number of active cells for such models between ECLIPSE and FrontSim.
1. The Field unit output of heat capacity is incorrect.
2. Fluid-in-place values reported in the PRT file are in surface units for black oil. For the compositional model, the values are in reservoir units and the gas in place is in Mrcf (1000 Reservoir Cubic Feet) instead of Mrb (1000 Reservoir Barrel).
3. When the MULTX/MULTY/MULTZ/MULTX-/MULTY-/MULTZ- keywords are used in the SCHEDULE section, FrontSim handles these as explained in theFrontSim User Guide. However, FrontSim cannot output the modified transmissibilities and multipliers to the restart files. This means that you cannot verify directly that the keywords take effect as expected, other than to inspect streamlines and pressures.
If the terminating slash is missing for a SCHEDULE keyword with multiple records, it can lead to unexpected behavior, for example, the subsequent keyword is not parsed correctly.
In some cases, the new version of the third party SAMG (Algebraic MultiGrid) linear solver fails to solve models with a small number of grid cells. In this case, use the optional one level solver instead, which is enabled by FSSOLVE 1.
A FrontSim run cannot be restarted from an ECLIPSE tracer run.
The FrontSim three-phase saturation solver may behave incorrectly with the combination of three-point end-point scaling, an RV (vaporized oil) variable table, and gravity segregation switched on.
1. A well’s individual rate limit may not be honored when the well is switched to BHP control, due to the inability to meet a user-defined target.
2. FrontSim sometimes show spikes when the target is controlled at group control level.
3. FrontSim sometimes does not manage to maintain rate limits (limits violated), when a well is converted from group rate control to individual BHP control.
4. The steady-state productivity/injectivity index value of a well that is supported by the WELPI keyword is treated by FrontSim as a total (all phases) PI at reservoir conditions - not surface conditions as described in the FrontSim User Guide. This is different from the behavior of ECLIPSE, which uses the PI for the phase indicated by WELSPECS item 6 at surface conditions.
5. There can be minor differences in results for the same dataset between platforms (Linux or PC) as well as between released versions. These can be due to different compiler versions and/or new enhancements. The pattern flood management (PFM) algorithm can be particularly sensitive to minor differences in results for well rates resulting in different allocations of injection rates.
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